Sensor technology is the cutting-edge technology of modern science and technology, and one of the three pillars of modern information technology. Its level is one of the important signs to measure the development level of a country's science and technology. Sensor industry is also recognized as a promising high-tech industry at home and abroad. It has attracted worldwide attention for its high technology content, good economic benefits, strong penetration ability and wide market prospect.
Over the past 20 years of reform and opening up, China's sensor technology and its industry have made great progress, mainly manifested in the following aspects: first, the establishment of "State Key Laboratory of sensing technology", "micron / nano State Key Laboratory", "national sensor technology engineering center" and other research and development bases; second, MEMS, MOEMS and other research projects have been listed in the national high-tech development priorities; third, in the implementation of the National Key Laboratory of sensor technology, micro / nano State Key Laboratory, and national sensor technology engineering center In the "Ninth Five Year Plan" national key scientific and technological research projects, the sensor technology research has obtained 51 varieties and 86 specifications of new products; fourth, the preliminary establishment of the sensor and sensor industry, with a total output of more than 1.3 billion in 2000, nearly 6000 varieties and specifications, and has been applied in various departments of the national economy and national defense construction; fifthly, 1688 enterprises and institutions have been engaged in this industry More than 50 MEMS sensors have been developed and produced. At present, the whole industry is carrying out the tenth five year plan, and five new sensors, such as MEMS, have been listed in the focus of research and development.
In the first half of 2004, the production and sales volume of the products continued to grow. It is estimated that by the end of the tenth five year plan, the total annual output of sensitive components and sensors is expected to reach 2 billion, and the total sales volume will reach about 12 billion yuan, thus forming a preliminary economic growth point in the instrument industry.
Characteristics: two dependence, two intensive, two scattered
The characteristics of sensor technology and its industry are: base and application are attached; technology and investment are intensive; products and industry are scattered.
Foundation and application are attached to each other
Basic attachment refers to the development of sensor technology, which depends on the four cornerstones of sensitive mechanism, sensitive materials, process equipment and measurement technology. The sensing mechanism is very different, the sensitive materials are various, the process equipment is different, and the measurement technology is very different. Without the support of the above four cornerstones, the sensor technology is difficult to continue. Application attachment means that sensor technology basically belongs to application technology, and its development mainly depends on making detection device and automatic control system to be applied, so as to truly reflect its high additional benefits and form a real market. In other words, the development of sensor technology should be market-oriented and demand driven.
Technology and investment intensive
Technology intensive refers to the diversity, marginality, comprehensiveness and craftsmanship of sensors in the process of development and manufacturing. It is the product of a variety of high technologies. Due to the intensive natural technology. Investment intensive means that research, development and production of a certain sensor product requires a certain investment intensity, especially in engineering research and the establishment of scale economy production line, more investment is required.
Products and industries are scattered
The two major dispersions of product structure and industrial structure refer to the wide variety of sensor products (including nearly 6000 varieties in 10 major categories and 42 small categories), and its application has penetrated into various industrial sectors. Its development is driven by the development of various industries and strongly depends on the supporting role of various industries. Only by constantly adjusting the industrial structure and product structure according to the market demand can we realize the comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of the sensor industry.
Facing new challenges and opportunities
The challenge of sensor industry comes from the backward status of information extraction which is urgently required by human society. The backwardness of sensing technology has become a bottleneck affecting the development of automation industry. Many experts in automation in China appeal that: at present, complex systems are becoming more and more complex, and automation has fallen into a low ebb. One of the main reasons is the backward sensor technology. On the one hand, the sensor is backward in sensing information; on the other hand, the sensor itself is backward in intelligent and networked technology.
In addition, the analytical instrument industry urgently needs new sensors. Analytical instruments are the basis for the sustainable development of science and technology, economy and society in China. In the fields of industrial process control, facility agriculture, biomedicine, environmental control, food safety, aerospace, national defense engineering and other fields, all kinds of new sensors are urgently needed to be miniaturized, specialized, simplified, and even personalized To achieve more sensitive, more accurate, faster and more reliable real-time detection, in order to quickly change the backward situation of analytical instruments in China.
Technology promotion is the guarantee and opportunity to accelerate the development of sensor technology. In recent decades, based on microelectronic technology, the development of sensor technology has been promoted. In the next 10-20 years, the traditional silicon technology will enter the mature stage (predicted to be 2014-2017). At that time, a large number of φ 300 mm silicon wafers will be used in production, making the low-cost silicon manufacturing technology and silicon application technology will get unprecedented development, which will undoubtedly provide technical support for the development and production of micro sensors, Zetian intelligent sensors and other new sensors. From the overall development, traditional silicon technology will continue until 2047 (i.e. the 100th anniversary of the invention of transistors) before reaching saturation (i.e. reaching the limit of chip characteristic size) and declining. At present, microelectronics technology will continue to follow the two basic laws of "equal ratio principle" and "Moore's law". In trying to approach the limit of traditional silicon technology, it will continue to expand the interdisciplinary horizontal application of silicon (such as MEMS) and break through the "Unsteady physical devices" (quantum and molecular devices). The two major directions in the development of the above-mentioned microelectronic technology are the sensors at present and even in the next 20 years The main development direction of technology.
At the same time, the interdisciplinary and high-tech integration promotes the birth and development of a new generation of sensors. For example, MEMS (the combination of microelectronics and micromechanics), MOMES (the combination of MEMS and micro optics), and intelligent sensor (the combination of MEMS and CPU, information control technology), biochemical sensor (the combination of MEMS and biotechnology, electrochemistry), and the network sensor (the combination of MEMS network technology) and nano sensor (the combination of nanotechnology and sensing technology) which will be vigorously developed in the future are all new generation sensors with interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary technologies.
Eight development trends
1、 Development mode of sensor Industrialization: we should accelerate the formation of a one-stop industrialization development mode from sensor research and development to mass production, and take a leap forward development road combining independent innovation and international cooperation, so as to make China a big producer of sensors in the world.
2、 The structure of sensor products is developing in an all-round, coordinated and sustainable way. Product varieties should be inclined to high technology and high added value, especially to fill the "blank" varieties.
3、 The production scale (annual production capacity) of an enterprise develops to scale economy or suitable scale economy. Large quantity and wide range Universal sensor The production scale of some medium grade sensors will be calculated by annual output of 10 million (including above), while the production scale of some high-grade sensors and special sensors will be calculated in the annual output of hundreds of thousands to millions.
4、 The pattern of production is developing towards specialization. The connotation of specialized production is as follows: 1. Fewer and better sensor categories; 2. Specialized production of a certain type of sensor series products required in a certain application field to obtain a higher market share; 3. Specialized cooperative production of various sensor enterprises.
5、 Sensor mass production technology is developing to automation. There are many kinds of sensors and different sensitive materials, which determine the diversity and complexity of sensor manufacturing technology. Looking at the general situation of the current sensor process line, most of the processes have realized single machine automation, but there are still many difficulties in the full automation of the production process, which need to be broken through by widely using CAD, cam, advanced automation equipment and industrial robots in the future.
6、 The key technological transformation of enterprises should strengthen the transfer from relying on imported technology to digestion and absorption of imported technology and independent innovation.
7、 8. The structure of enterprises will develop to a pattern of "developing simultaneously large, medium and small enterprises" and "coexistence of collectivization and specialization". This article originates from Zetian sensing Please keep the source.